Tuesday, October 19, 2021

What Is The Most Fattening Food?

I came across this paper recently:

"Changes in Diet and Lifestyle and Long Term Weight Gain in Women and Men” (Mozaffarian et al., 2011)

From the illustrious New England Journal of Medicine.

The most notable authors (apologies to the rest!) are F. B. Hu—Frank Hu, the current Frederick J. Stare Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health (Harvard University, 2021a); D. Mozaffarian—Dariush Mozaffarian, Dean of Tufts Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy (Tufts University, 2021); and W. C. Willett—Walter Willett, the previous Frederick J. Stare Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology at the aforementioned Harvard School  (Harvard University, 2021b), and until 2017 the chair of the department of nutrition—per Wikipedia as of this writing.

The three are the Holy Trinity of the Nutrition Establishment of the United States, and, by extension, the world. Combined, the three have written countless papers, editorials, and opinion pieces on the subject of health and nutrition.

This paper was a huge effort:

“We performed prospective investigations involving three separate cohorts that included 120,877 U.S. women and men who were free of chronic diseases and not obese at baseline, with follow-up periods from 1986 to 2006, 1991 to 2003, and 1986 to 2006.”

So this is a neat paper to find! What changes contribute most to weight gain, a topic of great concern to us all?

“On the basis of increased daily servings of individual dietary components, 4-year weight change was most strongly associated with the intake of potato chips (1.69 lb), potatoes (1.28 lb), sugar-sweetened beverages (1.00 lb)...”

So it’s potatoes! Potatoes are the most fattening food! Boy, that was easy.

But wait a minute, if one looks at their data for potatoes, one notices something very odd:


As you can see, they group ‘French fried’ potatoes together with ‘Boiled, baked, or mashed’ potatoes. But they group ‘Potato chips’ separately. And what’s most notable, is that there is a huge difference between ‘Boiled, baked, or mashed’ and the other two categories of potatoes, as far as weight gain goes. I decided to put a graph together:

As you can see, the worst individual item is French fried potatoes. Second is Potato chips, and the rest of the potatoes come in somewhere down the pack, between Sugar-sweetened beverages and Refined grains. Here’s another graph, where I drop the arbitrary (and misleading) Potatoes category, and the ‘Multivariable-Adjusted Change’ (which are likely bogus adjustments, as statistical adjustment is an art, not a science) to see what we really have here:

I dropped the Potatoes category because grouping ‘French fried’ together with ‘Boiled, baked, or mashed’ is very misleading, as it makes potatoes per se seem much worse than they are.

Now, ‘Boiled, baked, or mashed’ is another arbitrary sub-grouping of potatoes. A boiled potato is a very different thing from the other two categories, as it’s generally eaten on its own, without any added fat. Baked or mashed potatoes are generally served with some form of ‘Whole-fat dairy foods’—I checked a bunch of recipes and restaurant nutrition information on Google, and that seems to be a pretty fair statement. As you can see, ‘Whole-fat diary foods’, which includes butter, cheese, and whole-fat milk (see Table 2 above) is not particularly fattening on its own, as the authors note.

“Among Swedish women, higher intakes of whole milk and cheese were inversely associated with weight gain; as in our study, significant associations with weight gain were not seen for other dairy foods.” (Mozaffarian et al., 2011)

It’s unlikely that adding ‘Whole-fat dairy foods’ to a potato is going to make something that’s suddenly super-fattening, and that is not suggested by the data, but it might mean that a mashed potato with milk and butter (again, Google for recipes and nutrition info) is more fattening than a boiled potato, just due to the additive nature of the ingredients.

“A secondary analysis of potato subtypes showed that weight changes were positively associated with increases in the consumption of french fries (3.35 lb) and of boiled, baked, or mashed potatoes (0.57 lb) [numbers are multivariable-adjusted change].” (Mozaffarian et al.,2011)

So obviously the authors noticed this differential between the different varieties of potatoes as well, as they bothered to do a secondary analysis.

Considering the composition of a potato, which is mostly starch, one would expect it to have similar qualities to ‘Refined grains’, which are also mostly starch. And the ‘Boiled, baked, or mashed’ is indeed in the same neighborhood as ‘Refined grains’. I would expect that boiled potatoes alone should be right in the middle of refined grains, and the other two (baked and mashed) to be a bit higher, due to the added ‘Whole-fat dairy foods’, given the data presented.

But why are the other two categories of potatoes 6.5 and 3 times as fattening? What is the difference in ingredients between a boiled potato and a French fried potato?

The best-selling French fries, I’m assuming, are McDonald’s (McDonalds, Inc, 2021). The best-selling potato chips, according to Google again, are Lay’s (Frito-LayNorth America, Inc., 2021). So here is a comparison of potatoes: boiled (Condé Nast, 2018a), mashed (Condé Nast, 2018b), Lay’s, and McDonald’s:

And the ingredients? Well, the boiled potato is just a potato. The mashed potato includes butter, milk, and salt. The McDonald’s and Lay’s potatoes both list vegetable oils as the second ingredient.


Lays has a much simpler list of ingredients:

Now, the level of fatness doesn’t seem to correspond exactly to the fats, but all we have for the McDonald’s and Lay’s products is “Other fatty acids”; we don’t know exactly what they contained, and it likely varied over the course of this study. (Even the ingredients for Canadian McDonald’s fries differ from the American ingredients.)

The authors continue:

“Foods that contained higher amounts of refined carbohydrates — whether these were added (e.g., in sweets and desserts) or were not added (e.g., in refined grains) — were associated with weight gain in similar ways, and potato products (which are low in sugars and high in starches) showed the strongest associations with weight gain.” (Mozaffarian et al., 2011)

As the graph above shows, this is not correct. Potatoes become more fattening when the carbohydrate content is reduced, so long as it is replaced with vegetable oils. And it is a major effect, several times as fattening as potatoes containing either no added fats or non-fattening added dairy fats. And as we can see, this effect does not occur with higher levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) as seen in the potato + ‘Whole-fat dairy foods’ combinations.

The summary graph (Figure 1) of the paper perpetuates this misrepresentation.

Note that the potato-weight gain connection exists across all three data sets they examined. If ‘Boiled, baked, or mashed’ were grouped separately from ‘fries’ or if ‘Fried potatoes’ were listed separately from other potatoes as I have done in the graphs above, it would be quite clear that there is something very different, and very obesogenic about fried potatoes, and given the simple list of ingredients in fried potato products, the problem must be the added vegetable oils.

So, according to these authors, the answer to my question, “What is the most fattening food?” is:

Vegetable oils. 

Since mass-produced potato products don’t use olive or other fruit oils, the answer is more specifically:

Seed oils.


It’s of course speculation as to why these investigators, who obviously noticed that fried potatoes were unusually fattening compared to non-fried potatoes, didn’t continue to drill down as I have done here.

But one clue to motivation is always the most obvious one: money.

The two most significant authors of this paper report having received fees from Unilever. Unilever, once the biggest producer of vegetable oils in the world, was in 2011 at the tail end of a years-long effort to divest itself of its vegetable oils businesses (Gelski, 2013). Unilever continues to be a major producer of foods that use vegetable oils as an ingredient.

Dr. Mozaffarian, especially, has produced multiple studies on vegetable oils, many of which have been funded by Unilever and Bunge, another major producer of vegetable oils (Otto et al., 2015). Drs Hu and Willett recently published jointly with several employees of Unilever, funded in part by Unilever (Zong et al., 2019), in which they reported:

“Total n-6 PUFAs were associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes in the age-adjusted model, but the associations were greatly attenuated after controlling for established type 2 diabetes risk factors, including BMI…” (Zong et al., 2019)

If, as appears to be the case in (Mozaffarian et al., 2011), “total n-6 PUFAs”, aka seed oils, are also causative in obesity, then adjusting for BMI would be invalid, as one cannot adjust by a factor that is involved in the causative pathway. To do so would have the effect of hiding the involvement of seed oils in both obesity and type 2 diabetes.

One can certainly imagine why a company that sells seed oils and products containing them might be interested making that relationship less than obvious.

Given this appearance of impropriety, it’s ironic that Dr. Willett had, and Dr. Hu has, the title ‘Frederick J. Stare Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology’. Dr. Stare achieved a posthumous fame in (Kearns et al., 2016):

“Sugar Industry and Coronary Heart Disease Research: A Historical Analysis of Internal Industry Documents”

That was published in another prestigious medical journal, Journal of the American Medical Association: Internal Medicine. I’ll let this news article speak for the content of that paper:

“Sugar industry secretly paid for favorable Harvard research” (Bailey, 2016)

“Her paper recounts how two famous Harvard nutritionists, Dr. Fredrick Stare and Mark Hegsted, who are now deceased, worked closely with a trade group called the Sugar Research Foundation, which was trying to influence public understanding of sugar’s role in disease.”


Thanks to JR in the comments to this post, for reading the comments in the online version of this paper, and finding this:

All potatoes are not created equal

Drs. Mozaffarian et al have extended the important observation that the selective nutrient content of foods may be important determinants of weight gain. However, the authors missed an opportunity to critically examine the differences in the nutrient composition of french fries and chips compared to other potatoes. French fries had a 6-fold greater effect in weight gain and also differ from potatoes by having much greater omega-6 linoleic acid (7 gm/ 100 gm) vs. 0.03 gm/ 100 gm for baked potatoes (USDA Nutrient Database V 23). Potato chips have 13.4 gm of omega-6 linoleic acid /100 gm. Linoleic acid has been identified as a precursor for endogenous cannabinoids that are critical mediators of appetite and, in excess impair satiety and induce weight gain via mechanisms similar to pharmacological cannabinoids. In 1966 Dayton et al. reported linoleic acid induced weight gain in the LA Veterans study [(Dayton et al., 1966)]. Perhaps this difference in these biologically active fats distinguishes these potatoes and not the difference in total fat calories; the authors state that clear patterns were not seen in the relationship between weight gain and the energy density of the dietary components.

Joseph Hibbeln

Dr. Hibbeln is of course an investigator at the National Institutes of Health (NIH), who published the following year a study titled: 

"Dietary linoleic acid elevates endogenous 2-AG and anandamide and induces obesity" (Alvheim et al., 2012)


Alvheim, A. R., Malde, M. K., Osei‐Hyiaman, D., Hong, Y. H., Pawlosky, R. J., Madsen, L., Kristiansen, K., Frøyland, L., & Hibbeln, J. R. (2012). Dietary Linoleic Acid Elevates Endogenous 2-AG and Anandamide and Induces Obesity. Obesity, 20(10), 1984–1994. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2012.38

Bailey, M. (2016, September 12). Sugar industry secretly paid for favorable Harvard research [News]. STAT. https://www.statnews.com/2016/09/12/sugar-industry-harvard-research/

Condé Nast. (2018a). Potatoes, boiled, cooked in skin, flesh, without salt [Informational]. Nutrition Facts & Calories. https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/2556/2

Condé Nast. (2018b). Potatoes, mashed, home-prepared, whole milk and butter added [Informational]. Nutrition Facts & Calories. https://nutritiondata.self.com/facts/vegetables-and-vegetable-products/3004/2

Dayton, S., Hashimoto, S., Dixon, W., & Pearce, M. L. (1966). Composition of lipids in human serum and adipose tissue during prolonged feeding of a diet high in unsaturated fat. Journal of Lipid Research, 7(1), 103–111. https://www.jlr.org/article/S0022-2275(20)39591-2/pdf

Frito-Lay North America, Inc. (2021). LAY’S® Classic Potato Chips [Advertisement]. LAY’S®. http://www.lays.com/products/lays-classic-potato-chips

Gelski, J. (2013, July 26). AAK buys oils and fats supplier in Turkey from Unilever [News]. Food Business News. https://www.foodbusinessnews.net/articles/2547-aak-buys-oils-and-fats-supplier-in-turkey-from-unilever

Harvard University. (2021a). Frank Hu’s Faculty Website [Advertisement]. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/frank-hu/

Harvard University. (2021b). Walter Willett’s Faculty Website [Advertisement]. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/walter-willett/

Kearns, C. E., Schmidt, L. A., & Glantz, S. A. (2016). Sugar Industry and Coronary Heart Disease Research: A Historical Analysis of Internal Industry Documents. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(11), 1680–1685. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.5394

McDonalds, Inc. (2021). Ingredients in the French Fries (Medium) Compostable Packaging [Advertisement]. McDonald’s. https://www.mcdonalds.com/us/en-us/product/french-fries-medium-compostable-packaging.html

Mozaffarian, D., Hao, T., Rimm, E. B., Willett, W. C., & Hu, F. B. (2011). Changes in Diet and Lifestyle and Long-Term Weight Gain in Women and Men. New England Journal of Medicine, 364(25), 2392–2404. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1014296

Otto, M. C. de O., Padhye, N. S., Bertoni, A. G., Jr, D. R. J., & Mozaffarian, D. (2015). Everything in Moderation—Dietary Diversity and Quality, Central Obesity and Risk of Diabetes. PLOS ONE, 10(10), e0141341. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0141341

Tufts University. (2021). Dariush Mozaffarian [Advertisement]. Tufts Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy. https://nutrition.tufts.edu/profile/faculty/dariush-mozaffarian

Zong, G., Liu, G., Willett, W. C., Wanders, A. J., Alssema, M., Zock, P. L., Hu, F. B., & Sun, Q. (2019). Associations Between Linoleic Acid Intake and Incident Type 2 Diabetes Among U.S. Men and Women. Diabetes Care, 42(8), 1406–1413. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc19-0412



Tuesday, September 21, 2021

Good Keto vs. Bad Keto

This is what passes for a keto diet in the rodent literature.
From (Li et al., 2021)

It's Envigo's TD.96355, from a paper finding negative effects of a keto diet. 
"Ketogenic diet aggravates colitis, impairs intestinal barrier and alters gut microbiota and metabolism in DSS-induced mice" (Li et al., 2021)
F3666 is another rodent keto diet, (Lecker, 2011). It's also high in seed oils, and it's also commonly used. 

Virta Health explicitly advises patients to limit seed oil consumption (Phinney et al., 2020), based on Phinney's labratory experience and self-experimentation, in which he found seed oils to be acutely, albeit mildly, toxic: 
"Out of curiosity, Steve put himself on a ketogenic diet for a month and fed himself most of his fat intake overnight via a tiny feeding tube in his stomach (so taste wasn’t an issue). Within 3 days of feeding himself 1500 Calories of either soybean or corn oil nightly, he developed quite prominent nausea and gastro-intestinal upset. However when he fed himself the same amount of calories as olive oil for two straight weeks, he had no such symptoms. In between testing these different oils via the feeding tube, Steve maintained nutritional ketosis and met his full calorie needs by eating mostly animal fats, again without symptoms." (Phinney & Volek, 2012
We need to be cognizant of this pollution of the literature on safety and efficacy of keto diets due to non-evolutionarily appropriate fat compositions. Especially in a study like the above, where it's clearly confounded based on human data as shown in the literature (Fuehrlein, et al., 2004; Rose, et al., 1965; Wood, 2010)
“Most significantly, the risk of developing ulcerative colitis was more than doubled for the highest quartile of dietary linoleic acid intake (odds ratio [or] 2.49, 95% Ci 1.23–5.07, P = 0.01) when adjusted for center, gender, age at recruitment, energy intake and cigarette smoking. the authors suggest that “if the association is a causative one then 30% of all cases could be attributed to such higher intakes” (Wood, 2010)
The same can be found in the human literature looking at variations of Kossoff's medical ketogenic diet (which he has largely abandoned), (Kossoff & Wang, 2013).

(Phinney et al., 2020)

Envigo. (2015). TD.96355 Ketogenic Diet. Envigo. https://www.envigo.com/fat-lipid-adjusted-custom-diets
Fuehrlein, B. S., Rutenberg, M. S., Silver, J. N., Warren, M. W., Theriaque, D. W., Duncan, G. E., Stacpoole, P. W., & Brantly, M. L. (2004). Differential Metabolic Effects of Saturated Versus Polyunsaturated Fats in Ketogenic Diets. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(4), 1641–1645. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2003-031796
Kossoff, E., & Wang, H.-S. (2013). Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy. Biomedical Journal. https://doi.org/10.4103/2319-4170.107152
Lecker, J. (2011, January). Ketogenic Diet F3666 [Advertisement]. Bio-Serv. https://www.bio-serv.com/product/Ketogenic_Diet.html
Li, S., Zhuge, A., Wang, K., Lv, L., Bian, X., Yang, L., Xia, J., Jiang, X., Wu, W., Wang, S., Wang, Q., & Li, L. (2021). Ketogenic diet aggravates colitis, impairs intestinal barrier and alters gut microbiota and metabolism in DSS-induced mice. Food & Function. https://doi.org/10.1039/d1fo02288a
Phinney, S. D., & Virta, T. (2020, February 4). Which fats and oils should I eat on a ketogenic diet? [Advertisement]. Virta Health. https://virtahealth.webflow.io/faq/fats-oils-ketogenic-diet
Phinney, S., & Volek, J. S. (2012). The Art and Science of Low Carbohydrate Performance. Beyond Obesity LLC. https://www.google.com/books/edition/The_Art_and_Science_of_Low_Carbohydrate/KrNeMwEACAAJ?hl=en
Rose, G. A., Thomson, W. B., & Williams, R. T. (1965). Corn Oil in Treatment of Ischaemic Heart Disease. British Medical Journal, 1(5449), 1531–1533. https://www.bmj.com/content/1/5449/1531
Wood, N. J. (2010). High dietary intake of linoleic acid more than doubles the risk of ulcerative colitis. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 7(2), 65–65. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrgastro.2009.224

Monday, September 20, 2021

Interview: "Tucker Goodrich & Dr Berry Question the Safety of Canola & Soybean Oil"

Really nice discussion with Ken Berry with a live audience, so we got some good questions.

I don't think he has a podcast, but this is on YouTube now:

Friday, August 27, 2021

Interview: Tucker Goodrich Challenges Failed Experts with David Gornoski on A Neighbor's Choice

"Tucker Goodrich Challenges Failed Experts"
My part starts at 00:24:00.
"Also in the show, Tucker Goodrich joins David to comment on the censorship of information, the Diet Doctor podcast on vegetable oils, intralipid , the horrible dietary guidelines of hospitals, whether salt is harmful to our bodies, burning excess PUFAs, and more."
Radio, so no video for this one. Here's a link to the podcast, and here's an embedded player:

Thursday, August 26, 2021

AHS21 Presentation: "Why Did We All Get Sick? The Nutritional Transition & How Seed Oils Drove It"

"Why Did We All Get Sick? The Nutritional Transition & How Seed Oils Drove It", my presentation at the 10th Ancestral Health Symposium

I discuss the nutritional transitions that led to man being man, and the chronic diseases that were introduced along the way, along with mechanisms for causation, both known and proposed.

References for Ancestral Health Symposium 2021 talk, "Why Did We All Get Sick?"

This is slide-by-slide, some slides don't have any refs or no new refs, so they are skipped.

Health fallout from a visit to LA and a stay in a hotel: "How Much Seed Oil Is Too Much? Short-term Consequences of Going Off The Wagon"

Notes from the last one I attended, in 2012. (Pictures are mostly missing, as they were links.) 

Thanks to Tess Falor, Naomi Norwood, and of course Aaron Blaisdell and all the rest of the folks that put this fine event together. And to Chris Knobbe for getting me on the program!

Wednesday, August 25, 2021

How Much Seed Oil Is Too Much? Short-term Consequences of Going Off The Wagon

A cold day in Hell's Canyon
Have I mentioned I got married?

So this post is going to be a joint effort with my wife, Jen.

We went to high school together in Connecticut, and reconnected after many years and found ourselves to be a very good fit.

Unbeknownst to me, she had been suffering from a chronic auto-immune disease, fibromyalgia, for decades, since shortly after we graduated high school.
"Fibromyalgia affects about 4 million US adults, about 2% of the adult population."
When we reconnected in 2019, she was a Greger-style near-vegan, running her own organic farm in upstate New York, and producing most of her own food. She was also quite ill, overweight, and on a number of medications.

So at our first dinner together, after negotiating with the waitress about what food I could eat and winding up with a plate of sausages and a hard cider, I mentioned why I eat the way I do, and told her what to eat:
"Avoid seed oils, refined carbohydrates, refined sugars, and make sure to eat animal protein and animal fats."
Just a sentence. While we were friends, I didn't want to get into a diet debate with a vegan.

A few weeks later she let me know that she had fixed her diet, and was down 17 lbs already (for a total of 56 lbs over the next few months, back to beauty-queen weight).

What she didn't mention until much later was the fibromyalgia. What a near-vegan diet, a physician's care, and drugs hadn't accomplished was fixed with a paleo diet in a few months: the pain went away, for the first time in decades.

She had also suffered from cracks in her heels. I first learned about this from the Barefoot Sisters (podcast at the link), who were also vegetarians. I've long had a suspicion that heel cracks were a function of a low animal-fat diet, and along with the fibromyalgia, the heel cracks resolved.

So two years into this process, we went to LA for a few days for the Ancestral Health Symposium 2021, where I spoke. Since we were staying in a (very nice!) hotel where the conference was held, it was unavoidable that we were going to have to eat out in restaurants, something we do very rarely at home.

We are always careful when we eat out, since I am ridiculously gluten-intolerant. I have no choice. But seed oils are much harder to manage when eating in restaurant. We went to an In-N-Out Burger joint, for instance, and ordered burgers without buns or sauce, telling them I had a wheat allergy. But it's not possible to determine in what they are cooking the burgers. What do they use to lubricate the grill? Obviously we skipped the fries!

Same problem with the restaurant at the hotel: what are the vegetables cooked in? Given that they wouldn't put butter on the table even when they served gluten-free toast (what was in the toast?), I doubt they were using butter for the bread or the sautéed vegetables.

My general assumption is that since I don't have an acute reaction to seed oils, a little bit when I rarely eat out isn't going to harm me.

So when we get home, Jen reveals that her fibromyalgia is back. So are the cracks in her heels. She also had a rather severe intestinal distress which she'd rather not detail here! 

All three are improving, but that's a pretty severe reaction to a few days of not rigorously controlling her diet! The intestinal distress required a fast and a period of carnivory to resolve.

When fibromyalgia was full-on she describes it as having a "whole-body sprain", but now it's just in a few locations, like her hips.  Now the connection between fibromyalgia and seed oils is pretty clear (Albrecht et al., 2019; Cordero et al., 2011; Meeus et al., 2013), and I've helped others put it into remission via a low n-6 diet, but I've never heard of it coming back from just a few days of not-so-careless eating!

Luckily she's improving already.

So this raises a number of questions: 
  1. What is the amount of n-6 fats that causes these illnesses?
  2. What is the  amount stored in adipose tissue, and how does this interact with dietary intake?
  3. How long does it take to clear these fats out of the body, until one can tolerate a small intake?
Jen's only been eating this way for 2 years, after years of being on a high n-6 diet. It took me 5 years to really start feeling totally well, and the last odd health improvement happened after 7 years.

Five years is about how long it should take adipose tissue to lose stored n-6, based on the half-life of fats in adipose tissue. Some tissues with a high turnover, like the skin or gut, appear to happen quickly, some, like cartilage, likely take years, if ever.

In celiac it is recognized that a lack of exposure builds tolerance, and that symptoms also may take a while to return. This was my experience, and my tolerance to small, accidental exposures has grown. Not sure if this will directly apply to Jen's auto-immune condition, however.

In talking to Aaron Blaisdell, the founder and director of AHS, he described how he put his 'genetic' porphyria into remission, he said he suspects it was the seed oils that caused it (an update from his previous position.) For a guy who used to blister under the sun and had to wear denim and canvas when outside, he's looking quite tan!

But a lot of the answers to the above conditions are going to have to be addressed individually, since, as in Aaron's case, there are genetic factors driving individual responses to environmental triggers, and they're not always well understood.

Albrecht, D. S., Forsberg, A., Sandström, A., Bergan, C., Kadetoff, D., Protsenko, E., Lampa, J., Lee, Y. C., Höglund, C. O., Catana, C., Cervenka, S., Akeju, O., Lekander, M., Cohen, G., Halldin, C., Taylor, N., Kim, M., Hooker, J. M., Edwards, R. R., … Loggia, M. L. (2019). Brain glial activation in fibromyalgia – A multi-site positron emission tomography investigation. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 75, 72–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2018.09.018
Cordero, M. D., Alcocer-Gómez, E., Cano-García, F. J., De Miguel, M., Carrión, A. M., Navas, P., & Sánchez Alcázar, J. A. (2011). Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in Plasma. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e26915. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0026915
Meeus, M., Nijs, J., Hermans, L., Goubert, D., & Calders, P. (2013). The role of mitochondrial dysfunctions due to oxidative and nitrosative stress in the chronic pain or chronic fatigue syndromes and fibromyalgia patients: Peripheral and central mechanisms as therapeutic targets? Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, 17(9), 1081–1089. https://doi.org/10.1517/14728222.2013.818657

Tuesday, August 17, 2021

Interview/Debate: PUFAs Killing You? Debate Between Alan Flanagan & Tucker Goodrich on Mark Bell's Power Project

Here it is.
"We brought together Alan Flanagan and Tucker Goodrich to debate a few topics, mainly the dangers of Poly Unsaturated Fats.
"Alan Flanagan has an MSc in Nutritional Medicine, is currently pursuing his PhD. He is also a former practicing Lawyer (Barrister) from Dublin, Ireland. Alinea Nutrition is his online education hub, dedicated to empowering others with clear, impartial evidence-based knowledge and understanding about the science of nutrition.
"Tucker Goodrich is a technology executive in the financial industry who designs, runs, and debugs complex systems in high-risk environments. Areas of expertise include risk management, systems management, and cyber-security. He is also an Expert Advisor for the nutrition start-up Nutrita, and has been a guest on numerous podcasts.
"Links and info Tucker Referenced in the discussion: http://yelling-stop.blogspot.com/2021/08/show-notes-for-flanagan-and-goodrich-on.html"

Here's a link to the podcast, and here's an embedded player:

Show notes for Flanagan and Goodrich on Mark Bell's Power Project Podcast

The post that started this: Thoughts on 'Of Rats and Sidney Diet Heart...', Alan Flanagan's Post Defending Seed Oils