Monday, May 24, 2021

Interview: "Seed Oil Research with Prof. Bruce Hammock, Prof. Bruce German, and Tucker Goodrich" on A Neighbor's Choice with David Gornoski

For a change, I'm doing the interviewing, thanks to David who arranged this. A really mind-bending discussion.
"In this special roundtable podcast, David Gornoski and nutritional researcher Tucker Goodrich talk with distinguished professors Bruce Hammock and J Bruce German to discuss what their research of linoleic acid has revealed about our immune system, severe burns, pain blockers, ARDS mortality, mass consumption of vegetable oils, and more. How can we increase Omega-3 fatty acids without increasing Omega-6 in our bodies? Does decreasing Omega-6 in our bodies also decrease the susceptibility to severe cases of COVID?

"Bruce Hammock PhD is the Distinguished Professor of Entomology and UCD Comprehensive Cancer Center and Director of the NIEHS-UCD Superfund Research Program at University of California, Davis. "J. Bruce German PhD is a chemist and food scientist at UC, Davis. Professor German researches the role of fats and other components in the diet.
(I will update this post if I get any new info, there are a few missing references below.

P.S. Finished the show notes, 32 and above are new. Still missing a few references.)

It's probably better to watch the video if you can, there's a lot of non-verbal communication going on!



And here's the direct link to ANC.

Show notes:

Bruce D. Hammock: Hammock Laboratory of Pesticide Biotechnology

J. Bruce German

References in order of mention (see the names in the references section below for links to the study):
  1. Hammock recent research on leuktoxin and COVID-19: (McReynolds, Cortes_Puch, et al., 2021; McReynolds, Cortes-Puch, et al., 2021).
  2.  Japanese research on burns and leukotoxin: (Hayakawa et al., 1990; Kosaka et al., 1994).
  3. Diols, not epoxides are the actual toxin: (Moghaddam et al., 1997; Zheng et al., 1998)
  4. Stearic acid in plaques of American soldiers in Korean war: TK
  5. Crocodile oil study: (Watkins et al., 2001)
  6. Leukotoxin and brown fat: (Kulterer et al., n.d.; Lynes et al., 2017)
  7. N-6 (omega-6) PUFA and ARDS survival: (Bursten et al., 1996)
  8. Arachidonic acid metabolic pathways: (Hildreth et al., 2020)
  9. "Seventy-five percent, by weight, of the drugs sold in the world: (Rice, 2020)
  10. COX and LOX inflammatory pathways: (Archambault et al., 2020).
  11. Discovery of soluble Epoxide Hydrolase (sEH): (Kodani & Hammock, 2015)
  12. sEH, horses, and tendonitis (laminitis): (Guedes et al., 2013; Rice, 2020)
  13. Human trials of sEH inhibitor: (Hammock et al., 2021)
  14. Diabetic pain & neuropathy: TK
  15. Bill (William E. M.) Lands: (Wikipedia, 2020)
  16. Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 [n-3] polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools: (Taha et al., 2014)
  17. Age-related Macular Degeneration and N-6: TK
  18. "We're funded by the National Institutes of Drug Abuse"... (Hammock et al., 2021)
  19. Excess linoleic acid: (Okuyama et al., 1996)
  20. Fred Kummerow: trans fats researcher, on his diet: (Kummerow, 2015)
  21. Vernoleate bursting into flames, "another name for leukotoxin": (Bafor et al., 1993)
  22. Synthetic n-3 and farmed fish: (Kitessa et al., 2014)
  23. "The Environmental Impact of Vegetable Oils": (Nobbs, 2021)
  24. Dog study on leukotoxin: (Fukushima et al., 1988)
  25. Elevated leukotoxin in CVD and T2DM: TK
  26. N-6, sEH, and dementia ("Walter Swardfager in Toronto"): (Yu et al., 2019)
  27. HNE inducing amyloid plaque: (Arimon et al., 2015)
  28. Unsaturated aldehydes and tear gas: (Corson & Stoughton, 1928)
  29. Omega-3 and COVID-19: (Arnardottir et al., 2021)
  30. ARDS and trauma victims: (Plurad et al., 2009)
  31. John Kinsella and ARDS (may not be right paper): (Riyami et al., 1990)
  32. Kathleen Gura and Omega-6 infusions: (de Meijer et al., 2010)
  33. K-rations and Ancel Keys: (Oliver, 2004)
  34. Ancel Keys and Minnesota Coronary Experiment: (Ramsden et al., 2016)
  35.  Seed oils and torpor/hibernation: (Geiser & Kenagy, 1987; Ruf & Geiser, 2015)
  36. Linoleic acid diols and hibernation: TK
  37. Susan Allport, linoleic acid lowers BMR: (Allport, 2010)
  38. sEH and diabetes; sEH with n-3 eliminates T2DM w/ less n-6 (work by "Joan de Clerin"?): TK
  39. Mothers and babies: (German, 2011)
  40. Generational effects of high n-6: (Mamounis et al., 2020)
  41. Breast milk high in omega-6 (Tsimane vs American): (Martin et al., 2012)
  42. Bill Lands "NIX6 and EAT3" web site: EFAEducation.org
References:

Allport, S. (2010, November). One person’s response to a high omega-6 diet [Magazine]. American Oil Chemists’ Society. https://www.aocs.org/stay-informed/inform-magazine/featured-articles/one-persons-response-to-a-high-omega-6-diet-november-2010?SSO=True

Archambault, A.-S., Zaid, Y., Rakotoarivelo, V., Doré, É., Dubuc, I., Martin, C., Amar, Y., Cheikh, A., Fares, H., Hassani, A. E., Tijani, Y., Laviolette, M., Boilard, É., Flamand, L., & Flamand, N. (2020). Lipid storm within the lungs of severe COVID-19 patients: Extensive levels of cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase-derived inflammatory metabolites. MedRxiv, 2020.12.04.20242115. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.12.04.20242115

Arimon, M., Takeda, S., Post, K. L., Svirsky, S., Hyman, B. T., & Berezovska, O. (2015). Oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation are upstream of amyloid pathology. Neurobiology of Disease, 84, 109–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2015.06.013

Arnardottir, H., Pawelzik, S.-C., Öhlund Wistbacka, U., Artiach, G., Hofmann, R., Reinholdsson, I., Braunschweig, F., Tornvall, P., Religa, D., & Bäck, M. (2021). Stimulating the Resolution of Inflammation Through Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in COVID-19: Rationale for the COVID-Omega-F Trial. Frontiers in Physiology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.624657

Bafor, M., Smith, M. A., Jonsson, L., Stobart, K., & Stymne, S. (1993). Biosynthesis of vernoleate (cis-12-epoxyoctadeca-cis-9-enoate) in microsomal preparations from developing endosperm of Euphorbia lagascae. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 303(1), 145–151. https://doi.org/10.1006/abbi.1993.1265

Bursten, S. L., Federighi, D. A., Parsons, P. E., Harris, W. E., Abraham, E., Moore, E. E. J., Moore, F. A., Bianco, J. A., Singer, J. W., & Repine, J. E. (1996). An increase in serum C18 unsaturated free fatty acids as a predictor of the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Read Online: Critical Care Medicine | Society of Critical Care Medicine, 24(7), 1129–1136. https://doi.org/10.1097/00003246-199607000-00011

Corson, B. B., & Stoughton, R. W. (1928). REACTIONS OF ALPHA, BETA-UNSATURATED DINITRILES. Journal of the American Chemical Society. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01397a037

de Meijer, V. E., Le, H. D., Meisel, J. A., Gura, K. M., & Puder, M. (2010). Parenteral Fish Oil as Monotherapy Prevents Essential Fatty Acid Deficiency in Parenteral Nutrition Dependent Patients. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 50(2), 212–218. https://doi.org/10.1097/MPG.0b013e3181bbf51e

Fukushima, A., Hayakawa, M., Sugiyama., S., Ajioka, M., Ito, T., Satake, T., & Ozawa, T. (1988). Cardiovascular effects of leukotoxin (9,10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate) and free fatty acids in dogs. Cardiovascular Research, 22(3), 213–218. https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/22.3.213

Geiser, F., & Kenagy, G. J. (1987). Polyunsaturated lipid diet lengthens torpor and reduces body temperature in a hibernator. The American Journal of Physiology, 252(5 Pt 2), R897-901. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.1987.252.5.R897

German, J. B. (2011). Dietary lipids from an evolutionary perspective: Sources, structures and functions. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 7(s2), 2–16. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8709.2011.00300.x

Guedes, A. G., Morisseau, C., Sole, A., Soares, J. H., Ulu, A., Dong, H., & Hammock, B. D. (2013). Use of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor as an adjunctive analgesic in a horse with laminitis. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 40(4), 440–448. https://doi.org/10.1111/vaa.12030

Hammock, B. D., McReynolds, C. B., Wagner, K., Buckpitt, A., Cortes-Puch, I., Croston, G., Lee, K. S. S., Yang, J., Schmidt, W. K., & Hwang, S. H. (2021). Movement to the Clinic of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor EC5026 as an Analgesic for Neuropathic Pain and for Use as a Nonaddictive Opioid Alternative. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 64(4), 1856–1872. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01886

Hayakawa, M., Kosaka, K., Sugiyama, S., Yokoo, K., Aoyama, H., Izawa, Y., & Ozawa, T. (1990). Proposal of leukotoxin, 9,10-epoxy-12-octadecenoate, as a burn toxin. Biochemistry International, 21(3), 573–579. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2222499/

Hildreth, K., Kodani, S. D., Hammock, B. D., & Zhao, L. (2020). Cytochrome P450-derived linoleic acid metabolites EpOMEs and DiHOMEs: A review of recent studies. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 86, 108484. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2020.108484

Kitessa, S. M., Abeywardena, M., Wijesundera, C., & Nichols, P. D. (2014). DHA-Containing Oilseed: A Timely Solution for the Sustainability Issues Surrounding Fish Oil Sources of the Health-Benefitting Long-Chain Omega-3 Oils. Nutrients, 6(5), 2035–2058. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu6052035

Kodani, S. D., & Hammock, B. D. (2015). The 2014 Bernard B. Brodie award lecture-epoxide hydrolases: Drug metabolism to therapeutics for chronic pain. Drug Metabolism and Disposition: The Biological Fate of Chemicals, 43(5), 788–802. https://doi.org/10.1124/dmd.115.063339

Kosaka, K., Suzuki, K., Hayakawa, M., Sugiyama, S., & Ozawa, T. (1994). Leukotoxin, a linoleate epoxide: Its implication in the late death of patients with extensive burns. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 139(2), 141–148. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01081737

Kulterer, O. C., Niederstaetter, L., Herz, C. T., Haug, A. R., Bileck, A., Pils, D., Kautzky-Willer, A., Gerner, C., & Kiefer, F. W. (n.d.). The presence of active brown adipose tissue determines cold-induced energy expenditure and oxylipin profiles in humans. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa183

Kummerow, F. (2015, February). My Diet. World Nutrition. http://archive.wphna.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/01/WN-2015-06-01-02-72-78-Idea-Fred-Kummerow-My-diet-JF.pdf

Lynes, M. D., Leiria, L. O., Lundh, M., Bartelt, A., Shamsi, F., Huang, T. L., Takahashi, H., Hirshman, M. F., Schlein, C., Lee, A., Baer, L. A., May, F. J., Gao, F., Narain, N. R., Chen, E. Y., Kiebish, M. A., Cypess, A. M., Blüher, M., Goodyear, L. J., … Tseng, Y.-H. (2017). The cold-induced lipokine 12,13-diHOME promotes fatty acid transport into brown adipose tissue. Nature Medicine, 23(5), 631–637. https://doi.org/10.1038/nm.4297

Mamounis, K. J., Shvedov, N. R., Margolies, N., Yasrebi, A., & Roepke, T. A. (2020). The effects of dietary fatty acids in the physiological outcomes of maternal high-fat diet on offspring energy homeostasis in mice. Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, 11(3), 273–284. https://doi.org/10.1017/S2040174419000540

Martin, M. A., Lassek, W. D., Gaulin, S. J. C., Evans, R. W., Woo, J. G., Geraghty, S. R., Davidson, B. S., Morrow, A. L., Kaplan, H. S., & Gurven, M. D. (2012). Fatty acid composition in the mature milk of Bolivian forager-horticulturalists: Controlled comparisons with a US sample. Maternal & Child Nutrition, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00412.x

McReynolds, C. B., Cortes-Puch, I., Ravindran, R., Khan, I. H., Hammock, B. G., Shih, P. B., Hammock, B. D., & Yang, J. (2021). Plasma Linoleate Diols Are Potential Biomarkers for Severe COVID-19 Infections. Frontiers in Physiology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2021.663869

McReynolds, C. B., Cortes_Puch, I., Ravindran, R., Khan, I., Shih, P.-A. B., Hammock, B. D., Yang, J., & Hammock, B. G. (2021). Lipid mediators detected in COVID-19 patients and healthy controls (Version 4, p. 135850 bytes) [Data set]. Dryad. https://doi.org/10.25338/B8M92X

Moghaddam, M. F., Grant, D. F., Cheek, J. M., Greene, J. F., Williamson, K. C., & Hammock, B. D. (1997). Bioactivation of leukotoxins to their toxic diols by epoxide hydrolase. Nature Medicine, 3(5), 562–566. https://doi.org/10.1038/nm0597-562

Nobbs, J. (2021, March 30). The Environmental Impact of Vegetable Oils [Blog]. Jeff Nobbs. https://www.jeffnobbs.com/posts/the-environmental-impact-of-vegetable-oils

Okuyama, H., Kobayashi, T., & Watanabe, S. (1996). Dietary fatty acids—The n-6n-3 balance and chronic elderly diseases. Excess linoleic acid and relative n-3 deficiency syndrome seen in Japan. Progress in Lipid Research, 35(4), 409–457. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7827(96)00012-4

Oliver, M. (2004, November 25). Ancel Keys, 100; Diet Researcher Developed K-Rations for Troops. Los Angeles Times. https://www.latimes.com/archives/la-xpm-2004-nov-25-me-keys25-story.html

Plurad, D., Green, D., Inaba, K., Belzberg, H., Demetriades, D., & Rhee, P. (2009). A 6-year review of total parenteral nutrition use and association with late-onset acute respiratory distress syndrome among ventilated trauma victims. Injury, 40(5), 511–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2008.07.025

Ramsden, C. E., Zamora, D., Majchrzak-Hong, S., Faurot, K. R., Broste, S. K., Frantz, R. P., Davis, J. M., Ringel, A., Suchindran, C. M., & Hibbeln, J. R. (2016). Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: Analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73). BMJ, 353. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.i1246

Rice, M. E. (2020). Bruce D. Hammock: Science Should Be Fun. American Entomologist, 66(1), 14–19. https://doi.org/10.1093/ae/tmaa010

Riyami, B. M., Tree, R., Kinsella, J., Clark, C. J., Reid, W. H., Campbell, D., & Gemmell, C. G. (1990). Changes in alveolar macrophage, monocyte, and neutrophil cell profiles after smoke inhalation injury. Journal of Clinical Pathology, 43(1), 43–45. https://doi.org/10.1136/jcp.43.1.43

Ruf, T., & Geiser, F. (2015). Daily torpor and hibernation in birds and mammals. Biological Reviews, 90(3), 891–926. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12137

Taha, A. Y., Cheon, Y., Faurot, K. F., MacIntosh, B., Majchrzak-Hong, S. F., Mann, J. D., Hibbeln, J. R., Ringel, A., & Ramsden, C. E. (2014). Dietary omega-6 fatty acid lowering increases bioavailability of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in human plasma lipid pools. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids, 90(5), 151–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plefa.2014.02.003

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10 comments:

  1. Thank you very much for your work on omega 6. This bibliography saves me a thousand hours of search.
    Not to mention the thousands of hours you have already saved me from your earlier work.

    It's good to know who thinks carefully. Guess what, it's not even Nobel Prize winners.

    Best regards, Lee Valentine, M.D.

    ReplyDelete
  2. Thank you very much for your work on omega 6. This bibliography saves me a thousand hours of search.
    Not to mention the thousands of hours you have already saved me from your earlier work.

    It's good to know who thinks carefully. Guess what, it's not even Nobel Prize winners.

    Best regards, Lee Valentine, M.D.

    ReplyDelete
  3. Thank you very much for your work on omega 6. This bibliography saves me a thousand hours of search.
    Not to mention the thousands of hours you have already saved me from your earlier work.

    It's good to know who thinks carefully. Guess what, it's not even Nobel Prize winners.

    Best regards, Lee Valentine, M.D.

    ReplyDelete
  4. Thank you very much for your work on omega 6. This bibliography saves me a thousand hours of search.
    Not to mention the thousands of hours you have already saved me from your earlier work.

    It's good to know who thinks carefully. Guess what, it's not even Nobel Prize winners.

    Best regards, Lee Valentine, M.D.

    ReplyDelete
  5. Thank you very much for your work on omega 6. This bibliography saves me a thousand hours of search.
    Not to mention the thousands of hours you have already saved me from your earlier work.

    It's good to know who thinks carefully. Guess what, it's not even Nobel Prize winners.

    Best regards, Lee Valentine, M.D.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hi Tucker, thanks so much for all your interesting writing and musing.

    I usually just lurk here but I thought you'd find this article interesting. It discusses the addition of flax meal to stock feed at least as early as 1850. So much plant oil in it that it gives the animals a "glossy coat". That represents significant input of seed oils into the animal fat part of the food chain even earlier than cottonseed oil adulteration of lard.

    https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/agnic/flax/Eastman/ch%205.pdf

    ReplyDelete
  7. Thanks so much for all your interpretation of the research. Have you found any shampoos/conditioners that are free of or low linoleic acid? It seems like the natural ones have seed oils.

    ReplyDelete
  8. hi Tucker,
    following Passthecream's point, there is a treasure trove of published papers from Canadian researchers on the damage of oxidation processes to oil seed DNA during storage and prior to planting at farm storage bins. you can mount bs campaigns to consumers, but you cant to farmers who are on razor sharp margins and who have to pay for seed and nurture it to harvest. plus Canada depends on cash from exports of this major commodity.

    ReplyDelete
  9. I've been bingeing on YouTube videos of you talking to Mercola and Saladdino and Brian Sanders. Also I've seen a couple of long videos by Chris Knobbe. But I started hearing about the dangers of O6 many yrs ago, mostly from Chris Masterjon but also Rob Wolffe and Chris Kresser. Chris Masterjon always talked about how easily it oxidized. Also Ray Peat was onto this maybe before any of them. So I was just searching for low linoleic acid olive oil (didn't really find any) and found this :

    https://theecologist.org/2014/feb/24/linoleic-acid-overwhelming-evidence-against-healthy-poly-unsaturated-oil

    check out this quote from the page :

    "the amount of omega-6 fat in mother's milk - fats that come from vegetable oils such as corn and soybean - predict lower test scores. When the amount of DHA and linoleic acid (LA) - the most common omega-6 fat - were considered together, they explained nearly half of the differences in test scores."

    So not only does it make you fat and sick, it also makes you stupid.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Yeah, it would explain a lot of what has happened to the US...

      Delete